Journalist Julian Dibbell described Encyclopædia Dramatica as the site "where the vast parallel universe of Anonymous in-jokes, catchphrases, and obsessions is lovingly annotated, and you will discover an elaborate trolling culture: Flamingly racist and misogynist content lurks throughout, all of it calculated to offend." On April 14, 2011, the original URL of the site was redirected to a new website named Oh Internet that bore little resemblance to Encyclopedia Dramatica.
Parts of the ED community harshly criticized the changes.
Dozens of people have been arrested for involvement in Anonymous cyberattacks, in countries including the US, UK, Australia, the Netherlands, Spain, India and Turkey.
Evaluations of the group's actions and effectiveness vary widely.
Some actions by members of the group have been described as being anti-Zionist.
It has threatened to cyber-attack Israel and engaged in the "#Op Israel" cyber-attacks of Israeli websites on Yom Ha Shoah (Holocaust Remembrance Day) in 2013.
However this may not always be the case, as some of the collective prefer to instead cover their face without using the well-known mask as a disguise.
A website nominally associated with the group describes it as "an Internet gathering" with "a very loose and decentralized command structure that operates on ideas rather than directives".
The concept of the Anonymous entity advanced in 2004 when an administrator on the 4chan image board activated a "Forced_Anon" protocol that signed all posts as Anonymous.
Users of 4chan's /b/ board would occasionally join into mass pranks or raids.
Later targets of Anonymous hacktivism included government agencies of the U.
S., Israel, Tunisia, Uganda, and others; the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; child pornography sites; copyright protection agencies; the Westboro Baptist Church; and corporations such as Pay Pal, Master Card, Visa, and Sony.