The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the traditional method of accurately quantifying cytokine levels.
This can be performed with high sensitivity and specificity.
The accuracy and precision of the in-house microarray system were investigated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for pharmacokinetic assay validation.
Consequently, the recent emergence of protein microarray technology, which is able to quantify a range of inflammatory mediators in a large number of samples simultaneously, has become highly desirable.
A protein microarray is, in many ways, a miniaturised version of a sandwich ELISA.
Quantifying cytokine abundance by microarray typically involves printing capture antibody onto a coated glass slide and incubating with a serum sample.
Here we show that within 24 h of receiving adjuvanted swine flu vaccine, healthy individuals made expansive, complex molecular and cellular responses that included overt lymphoid as well as myeloid contributions.
Unexpectedly, this early response was subtly but significantly different in people older than 35 years.